Mythology
The Fomor

The Fomor/Fomorians - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fomorians
In Irish mythology, the Fomor (or Fomorians) are a semi-divine race said to have inhabited Ireland in ancient times. It is an Old Irish compound word with a number of possible meanings including “Under Demons”.
One of the main literary sources in existence from early Irish History is  Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) a collection of poems and narratives compiled by an anonymous scholar in the 11th century, recounting the mythical origins and history of the Irish race from the creation of the world down to the Middle Ages. It is usually known in English as The Book of Invasions or The Book of Conquests and the Fomor appear in several places; depicted as evil, deformed creatures, a mixture of several species (the body of a man and the head of a reptile). This can probably be considered the tabloid journalism of its day, and they were just describing one exceedingly different non-human race.
The Fomor had many battles with the god-like Tuatha Dé Danann. At the Second Battle of Mag Tuireadh, fought between the Fomorians under Balor and the Tuatha Dé commanded by Lug. Balor killed many with his terrible, poisonous eye that was fatal to all who it looked upon. But as he was opening it Lug shot a sling-stone that drove the eye out the back of his head, wreaking havoc on the Fomorian army behind. After Balor's death the Fomorians withdrew from Ireland and went into hiding off the west coast. It is said that the Fomorians introduced the festival of Samhaim.

The Tuatha

Tuatha De Danann - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuatha_De_Danann
The Dananns were descendants of the goddess Danu. They are described as physically outstanding; tall, red-haired, fair-skinned, warlike aristocratic and mystical beings who descended from the skies. The Lebor Gabala Erenn recounts their arrival:
    §55. So that they were the Tuatha De Danann who came to Ireland. In this wise they came, in dark clouds. They landed on the mountains of Conmaicne Rein in Connachta; and they brought a darkness over the sun for three days and three nights.
Their prince in Irish mythology, Óengus (Old Irish), or Áengus (Middle Irish), was a skilled warrior who owned a sword named Moralltach, the Great Fury. His father , Dagda, had an affair with Boann, wife of Nechtan. In order to hide their affair, Dagda made the sun stand still for nine months; therefore Aengus was conceived, gestated and born in one day.
Led by the Tuatha king Nuada, they fought the First Battle of Magh Tuiredh (Moytura), on the west coast, in which they defeated and displaced the native Fir Bolg, who then inhabited Ireland. In the battle, Nuada lost an arm to their champion, Sreng. Since Nuada was no longer "unblemished", he could not continue as king and was replaced by the half-Fomorian Bres, who turned out to be a tyrant. The physician Dian Cecht replaced Nuada's arm with a silver mechanical (robotic) one and he was reinstated as king.

Fir Bolgs

Fir Bolg - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fir_Bolg
In the earliest records the Fir Bolg were the rulers of Ireland immediately before the arrival of the Tuatha Dé Danann. The King of the Tuatha Dé Danann, Nuada, sued for half the island for his people, but the Fir Bolg king refused. They met at the Pass of Balgatan, and the ensuing battle - the Battle of Mag Tuired  - went on for four days. The Morrígan, though the fierce efforts of their champion Sreng saved them from utter loss and the Tuatha Dé Danann were so touched by their nobility and spirit they gave them one quarter of the island as their own. The Fir Bolg were recorded given, as a place of settlement, the Aran Islands  and surrounding coastland (the largest of these Islands, Inishmore is home to a fortress allegedly related to Aengus and the Fir Bolg, Dún Aengus). This region was where the Fomorians had gone into hiding. From this point on the Fir Bolg fade into historical obscurity.

Samhain

Samhain - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samhain
Samhain is a festival held on October 31 to November 1 in Celtic cultures. The word Samhain is derived from Old Irish and means roughly "summer's end".  The Celts believed that the veil between the world of the living and the dead was thinnest on Samhain because the onset of harsh winter weather brought death to animals and plants; thus allowing the dead to travel back across the boundary that separated them from the living. Bonfires, or bone fires, played a large part in the festivities also referred to as The Festival of The Dead. In modern times it is called Halloween.

Bahshee

Ben Sidhe/Banshee - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banshee
The word Banshee is derived from the Irish bean sídhe ("woman of the burial mounds"). The Banshee is a female spirit in Irish mythology dressed in a hooded cloak, usually seen as an omen of death and a messenger from the Otherworld. In Irish legend, a banshee wails nearby if someone is about to die.

Celtic Cross

Celtic Cross - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtic_cross

The Celtic Cross is a pagan symbol that combines a cross with a ring surrounding the intersection. In the Celtic Christian world it was combined with the Christian cross and this design was often used for high crosses – a free-standing cross made of stone and often richly decorated.
In reality, no historian can tell us where, when or even why the first High Crosses were erected. The origin of this widespread symbol has long been lost to the passage of time. All we can say with certainty is that it must have been a powerful symbol to have endured unchanged for thousands of years.

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